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Comprehensive analysis of

From: Data:12/07/2016

The rapid development of

LED technology, and constantly improve the light efficiency, LED lighting technology is also in rapid development. At present, LED spotlight is almost to replace the traditional halogen lamp. Compared with the traditional lamp, LED lamp has significant advantages in energy saving and long life. With the decrease of LED lamp cost, application of LED spotlight gradually began to spread. The comprehensive analysis of the LED spotlight lamps and lanterns "is divided into two sets, set first, based on the technology of LED lamp requirements, common types and specifications of structure for everyone.

comprehensive analysis LED spotlight lamps and lanterns (on)

(a) LED spotlight technology requirements

at this stage of the LED lamp, mainly to replace traditional halogen tungsten lamp, relevant safety requirements mostly referred to the traditional lighting requirements and according to the characteristics of LED lamp, forming a a set of safety certification standards. At present, in the LED spotlight of certification, the mainly to the European CE and North America UL certification mainly, in China can be voluntary certification (CQC).

in CE certification contains two aspects of LVD and EMC, where LVD is implemented in accordance with the EN60968 standard (will be upgraded IEC 62560); EMC in accordance with EN55015, EN61547, EN61000-3-2 and EN61000-3-3 standard implementation. In addition, LED lights usually also require additional reference to IEC 62471, to test the safety of light. In North America, UL security and FCC electromagnetic compatibility certification are usually required. UL implementation standards for UL1993, UL8750 and UL1310; FCC implementation standards for PART15 Subpart B FCC. In China, the LED lamp is using the voluntary certification (CQC), the implementation of standards GB24906-2010 (safety) and GB 17743-2007 (EMC).

also, in terms of performance of LED lamp, there are also many standards. The United States has the energy star (STAR ENERGY) has the relevant requirements; China has energy-saving certification requirements, the implementation of the standard is 3129-2010 CQC. These requirements, the color temperature of the LED lamp, color index, initial luminous flux, luminous efficiency and luminous flux maintenance rate, longevity, intensity, nominal power, power factor, such as product identification were specified.


many electronic products are judged to be bad, but LED is a long life of the light source, can be used for a long time will not be bad. But the luminous flux output will decay with time, so industry usually decay to 70% needed time to define the life of LED light source, namely L70. With the development of technology, more and more LED slow decay, to complete the test light to 70% of the time to do. Due to the electronic product life exponentially. Therefore led usually do a short time aging, by sampling the attenuation data, then the exponential function to calculate the depreciation to 70% of the time, calculation formula as shown above.

LED lamp specifications and types of

] common LED lamp specifications and types of

usually led to aging 6000 hours test lumen maintenance rate of LM (lumen Maintains). According to the index law. If 6000 hours after LM> 91.8%, then can be claimed 25000 hours of life, if LM> 94.1% can be claimed to 35000 hours of life, but life calculate time does not exceed 6 times of testing time.

1: distribution curve

LED spotlight angles - polar intensity decay index curve

figure 2:LED spotlights, generally to 50% of the peak intensity of the beam angle to define. Figure 2 is a LED spot lamp polar luminous intensity distribution curve can be seen, 50 percent of the light intensity corresponding to the angles of & plusmn; 20° so the angle of the lamp for 40°.

(II) the common LED lamp specifications and types

Figure 3: different lamp (from left to right for E14 E17, E26, E27, GU10, GU5.3)

at this stage of the LED lamp mainly to replace traditional halogen tungsten lamp based, so dimensions are in accordance with IEC 60630 standard, lamp reference standard IEC 60061-1. According to the traditional lamp, LED lamp is mainly MR16, PAR16, PAR20, PAR30, PAR38 of the several. The MR16 usually by GU5.3 cap; GU10, E26 (America) /E27 (China and Europe, E14 lamp is mainly used in the PAR16; PAR20/PA30/PAR38 mainly by E26, E27 lamp.

page 3: LED lamp structure analysis

(3) of the common LED lamp structure analysis

at present the LED spotlight are for self ballasted type, that is, LED drive power supply all of the built-in inside the lamp body and is directly connected to the electricity can be used.

figure 4:LED spotlights PAR16-GU10 dismantling map

as shown in Figure 4 spotlights dismantling map can be seen, the LED lamp main optical device (lens, reflector), LED light source, a radiator, a drive power, lamp holder, this part. But the manufacturers of LED lamp, because of the difference of the materials, technology, LED packages, the spotlight will have some differences in the design and the processing.

1.LED light source and optical devices

Figure 5: first for multiple pieces of high power LED
2 or 3 integrated package LED spotlight

using high power LEDs, usually need a circuit board the LED is electrically connected. The circuit board is mostly made of aluminum substrate (MCPCB); for some design also has the use of glass fiber board (FR-4) production, but need to design a special heat sink. Then with screws or adhesive fixed on the lamp shell radiator. Lamp made of high power LEDs, the lens is usually by independent light distribution on every single LED, and then combined into a spot of the lens.

the integrated package LED lamp and a circuit board is not needed, can directly drive power output line connected to the LED lamp. Is the same with a screw or adhesive fixed on the lamp shell radiator. The lamp of the second optical, usually by a lens or reflector cup with a light, the height of the lens and the light reflecting cup are higher, with small angle light has the difficulty.

in addition, for a smooth lamp, most of the multiple optical devices to complete the whole lamp of the secondary light distribution design, as shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6: multiple optical devices of the spotlights

2.LED drive power

in Figure 7: power filling glue lamp

except the power switch, and a variety of other LED drive mode, but its safety and reliability are low, need to make structural design, to meet the safety requirements. In addition, due to the built-in power supply, usually component temperature is very high, will directly affect the service life and stability of the LED lamp. Therefore, many manufacturers are using glue, improve the power of the heat dissipation capacity, and improve the insulation of the power supply and heat dissipation shell, if 7.

due to control LED, so the manufacturers have developed LED lamp dimming. Existing main dimming methods triac dimming and PWM dimming, 0-10V dimming, Dali dimming, DMX51 dimming, electric power carrier tone light and so on, are through control the LED drive current or voltage, change the LED brightness.


is the main radiator shell lamp shell radiator manufacturers consider the design capability of the local. Most manufacturers of the radiator is made of aluminum material, processing technology and mold forming process and other means. In the structure design, the manufacturers in order to increase the cooling capacity of the lamp, usually using fins, as shown in figure 8.

figure 8: with fin LED lamp radiator (left)
insert injection molding radiator (right)

also, shell is also useful made of thermal plastic or ceramic materials, are the mold. These two kinds of materials have good insulation performance, can make the product with high electrical safety performance, easy to drive the internal LED security isolation. But the thermal conductivity of these two materials is low, is not conducive to heat conduction, for the heat conduction requirements are not high indoor products can be used. In addition, plastic materials are light weight characteristics, can make the LED light weight has been reduced greatly.


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